(subscript are in brackets: [...])

We start with the efficiency of a Carnot-machine, or rather, simply efficiency

e = 1 – Q[L]/Q[H]

which is based on the law of conservation of energy

Q[H] – Q[L] = W

of which the modern equivalent is

E – E[S] = KE = pc*

so that the efficiency is

e = 1 – E[S]/E

which solves as

e = KE/E = pc/mc^2 = v/c

Here, later on, we’ll use e = v/c.

Now, we take Hubble’s law (for velocity)

v = Hd

where the distance is d = ct,

(If we also use v = at, we obtain a = Hc.)

and when expressed, results in

v = Hct

so that v/c = Ht. And using e = v/c, it makes

e = Ht

where the efficiency is equivalent to time.

Oegstgeest, 9 June 2012

P.J. Bouwer

* reference: “Mass change caused by the Doppler shift for light.” found at: http://www.hamiltoninstitute.com/mass-change-caused-by-the-doppler-shift-for-light/

]]>A known solution for power is

P = Fv

Where F = ma, so that

P = mav

The same, using impulse p = mv, is

P = pa

Again the same, using p = [h-bar]k and ak = [alpha], the latter shown using the sum-rule

(d/dt)(dl/dt)(d[theta]/dl) = (d/dt)(d[theta]/dt), is

P = [h-bar][alpha]

Where [alpha] is the angular acceleration and is the equivalent of power.

Oegstgeest, 31 may 2012,

P.J. Brouwer